Download this quiz in PDF here. 2. They are like relative clauses, but with the relative pronoun and auxiliary verb (if there is one) left out. This is the main distinction. Reduced Relative Clauses Reduced relative clauses exercise adapted from Life by National Geographic ID: 21250 Language: English School subject: English as a Second Language (ESL) Grade/level: Upper Intermediate / Advanced Age: 12+ Main content: Relative clauses Other contents: TOEFL grammar Any active tense can be changed to a present participle phrase e.g. However, reduced relative clauses in the form of present and past participle phrases is seen as a higher level skill. Relative clauses can also be reduced to shorter forms if the relative clause modifies the subject of a sentence. Reduced Relative Clauses ( Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ) Cập nhật lúc: 14:03 26-12-2016 Mục tin: Ngữ Pháp (Grammar) Các trường hợp đặc biệt và nâng cao của mệnh đề quan hệ bao gồm rút gọn Ving, Ved, to Vo, lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ và các bước làm bài chi tiết, cụ thể và dễ hiểu. Adjective clauses are formed when you combine two simple sentences together by using connectors such as “who,” “which,” and “that.” The clause connectors can be subject or object relative pronouns. The main parts of a sentence are subjects, verbs, objects, predicates, and subject complements. Reduction of Relative Clauses Prepared by Rebecca Soble 2. However, the relative pronoun may be ellipted: The video [you recommended] was terrific. (A reduced relative clause, in this case passivized. Object pronouns can be deleted. Analyze the following sentences to determine the rules for reducing relative clauses. A clause contains a subject and a verb and can express a complete thought. If you do not wish to emphasise in the particle phrase the prior completion of the activity, then it is more common to use the present participle. If the clause in the passive perfect tense (present or past), then 'have' or 'had' is replaced by 'having'. Need more practice? Reduced relative clauses refer to the shortening of a relative clause which modifies the subject of a sentence. Reduced relative clauses 1. Reduced Relative Clauses. Reduced relative clauses are participle clauses which follow a noun. The modifier with a full (finite) clause is changed to a modifier with a reduced (nonfinite) clause. So we end up with 'having + been' to make the reduced relative clause. In the worksheet, students first need to decide whether the relative clause can be reduced or not, then make the necessary changes in the sentence to make it shorter. "Reduced Relative Clauses." REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSES. A phrase does not contain a subject or verb. In this case we can move the past participle to before the modified noun. I THANK … Beare, Kenneth. -> This is the dog attacked by the cat.). "The man [that I saw him yesterday] went home". (A complementizer linking the two sentences with a resumptive pronoun indicating the role of the shared noun in the embedded clause, as in Arabic, Hebrew or Persian.) Relative Clause Reduction Relative clauselar, normal halinde yazılı dilde yaygındır, ancak zamanla İngilizcenin genelinde uzun zamandır gerçekleşen her şeyi daha kısa sözcükle daha kısa zamanda anlatma çabası, bu konuya da etki etmiştir. Note: In non-defining sentences you neither omit the relative pronoun nor use "that". Another form of reduced relative clause is the "reduced object passive relative … We’ll use the examples above to demonstrate how to reduce both restrictive and non-restrictive clauses. Relative Clause Reduction Rules 1. However, there is equilibrium everywhere: in sentences that have subject relative clauses, you can’t omit the relative pronoun, but you can reduce clauses to phrases. Adjective clauses exercises advanced level esl. Sign-up for Free Grammar Tips into your Inbox! Therefore, I would like to ask if defining clauses such as the second example above belong to the category of relative clauses or not. These dependent clauses represent support ideas to the main part of sentences. Sign up for free grammar tips, quizzes and lessons, straight into your inbox. present simple, past simple, present continuous, present perfect etc. We've been looking at present and past participle phrases, but it should also be noted that we can in cases reduce relative clauses with just a past particle. A relative clause can be used to give additional information about a noun. It modifies the noun boy. I'm Seonaid and I hope you like the website. Be a detective! If the relative pronoun is followed by a prepositional phrase, then this can be reduced. Restrictive relative clauses can be reduced in two ways. Reduced Relative Clauses You may delete the relative pronoun and the be verb when: 1. they are followed by a prepositional phrase. We can do this with a participle phrase: Marilyn was the woman living in the flat underneath us at the time (= … who lived/was living in …) The clauses struck out … Relative clauses usually modify a noun or noun phrase in the sentence as in this example, where the word 'table' is being modified: In this reduced clause, 'that' is no longer used: However, it is not always just a matter of omitting the relative pronoun. or "...whom I saw." ThoughtCo, Aug. 27, 2020, thoughtco.com/reduced-relative-clauses-1211107. They are also known as reduced adjective clauses. You will then have formed a perfect active participle phrase: So in the above example, it emphasised that the hard studying took place before the best results. It's possible to reduce a relative clause by simply using the prepositional phrase used in a relative clause with 'be'. As the grammatically correct reduction of relative clauses is quite a difficult skill, it is something the examiner in the IELTS test will look out for when awarding a band 7 and above for grammatical range and accuracy. Download this quiz in PDF here. Phrases and clauses are the key building blocks of sentences. The man _____ the books and pens is the new economics and mathematics teacher Practice the "reduced relative clause" (ex: "an animal found in Japan") by quizzing your students. So in the case of this sentence, 'having finally voted' refers to the MPs in the independent clause (MPs are leaving parliament), so it can be placed in two positions: If the relative clause is in the passive voice and in a simple tense, then it can be reduced by deleting the relative pronoun and the verb 'to be', leaving you with the past participle. A reduced relative clause is a relative clause that is not marked by an explicit relative pronoun or complementizer such as who, which or that. 7. … REDUCED MODIFYING CLAUSE; Below, the modifying clause is less wordy. Because they modify nouns, (reduced) relative clauses are occasionally referred to as adjective clauses. Reduced relative clauses modify the subject and not the object of a sentence. We can do this by omitting the subject pronoun and the form of “to be” that follows it. Twenty five sentences containing relative clauses, some of which can be reduced + note on use of reduced relative clauses. This is a perfect passive particle phrase: Again, if the  non-defining participle phrase refers to the subject of the independent clause, the phrase may be placed either immediately before or after the subject of that independent clause: In the case of the perfect tenses, you can choose either a present or past participle, depending on what you wish to emphasise in the sentence. - When creating a reduced relative clause, do not forget to omit both the relative pronoun and the verb be. A relative clause is also known as an adjective clause. Remove the verb (usually "be," but also "seem," "appear," etc.). • I would rather you carried the box that is heavy. If the verb is in the active voice, it gets reduced to a present participle phrase. My friends living in dorms had a very hard time. In this case 'have' is omitted and the main verb of the relative clause is changed to the present participle. Get more Perfect English Grammar with our courses. • The man who is young is a pilot. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, English as a Second Language (ESL) Expert. This is a clause that generally modifies a noun or a noun phrase and is often introduced by a relative pronoun (which, that, who, whom, whose).A relative clause connects ideas by using pronouns that relate to something previously mentioned and allows the writer to combine two independent clauses into one sentence. Much like adjectives, relative clauses, also known as adjective clauses, modify nouns. People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones. 3. We can do this if the sentence has the verb 'to be' or 'to have' and only a past participle. Reduced Relative Clauses Relative clauses add additional information about a noun in a sentence. Here's a worksheet on reduced relative clauses for you to check your students on reduced relative clauses. The clothes that are lying on the floor belong to me. Unreduced forms of this relative clause would be "This is the man that I saw." I'm Seonaid and I hope you like the website. (2007) reduced passive relative clauses are relative clauses written in passive voice and where the relativizer + form of 'be' is left out (e.g. The relative pronoun— that, which, or who —is omitted, and the verb, an active form (sits, is sitting, sat, has sat, has been sitting) is changed to the present participle form (-ing). Welcome to Perfect English Grammar! If the relative clause has only an adjective and the verb to be within it, then the adjective can be placed before the noun, and the relative pronoun (and verb 'to be') can be deleted: If there is a verb other than the verb to be (usually sense verbs such as smell, look, feel, sound etc), then we reduce it to an adjective phrase: Reduced relative clauses can be used to make your writing more concise, so it is common to use them within formal or academic writing, though they can appear in any style of writing. This is the dog which was attacked by the cat. Welcome! The man who is swimming in the lake is my father. Another variant, the REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSE, has no relative pronoun, and the verb is nonfinite: In this quiz test yourself on verbs in the past. … Participle Clauses Exercise 1 (Reduced Relative Clauses) Review participle clauses here. Irregular verb exercises for the past simple. You need to turn the statements into their negative form. The man who works at Costco lives in Seattle. Using a reduced relative clause we can reduce the first sentence to: The second example sentence cannot be reduced because the relative clause "which was written by Hemingway" modifies an object of the verb "give.". A. If you wish to emphasise the prior completion of the activity in the participle phrase, 'have' is changed to 'having', leaving you with 'having + past participle'. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/reduced-relative-clauses-1211107. Place the adjective used in the relative clause. In the second sentence, "which was written by Hemingway" modifies the object "book." The men that are working on the project come from India. To do this you delete the relative pronoun and any auxiliary verbs if there are any, and use the present participle of the main verb. They are introduced by a relative pronoun like 'that', 'which', 'who', 'whose', 'where' and 'when'. Get more Perfect English Grammar with our courses. Sample usage from the article: ... 2. the main verb in the relative clause is progressive. Need more practice? As the grammatically correct reduction of relative clauses is quite a difficult skill, it is something the examiner in the IELTS test will look out for when awarding a band 7 and above for grammatical range and accuracy. There are different reduced relative clause rules depending on the sentence involved. The man swimming in the lake is my father. Reduced relative clauses can be used to make your writing more concise, so it is common to use them within formal or academic writing, though they can appear in any style of writing. The two types of clauses in English grammar are the independent and dependent clause. We often ‘reduce’ a relative clause, i.e. A silhouette quiz with the entire class followed by … * People who are given a second chance should be more careful. Relative Clause. 1a. 1. What Are Reduced Adverb Clauses and How Do They Work? Note though that this will NOT include reducing relative clauses to propositional phrases, adjective phrases, or adjectives because when you do this you are creating a more simple sentence. Q. People littering will have to pay a fine. You then have a continuous passive participle phrase. Reduced relative clauses are mainly created through the use of: if the relative pronoun is the subject of the relative clause, then the clause can be reduced to a present participle (verb + ing) phase or past participle (verb + ed) phrase. Relative clauses in English - grammar exercises. https://www.thoughtco.com/reduced-relative-clauses-1211107 (accessed January 24, 2021). The boy you don’t like much wants to talk to you. If it is in the passive voice but is a continuous tense verb (present or past), then you delete the connecting word and 'to be', leaving you with 'being + past participle'. Reduced Relative Clauses. All of these have a specific purpose within the structure of a sentence. Reduced relative clauses. ThoughtCo. we shorten it by omitting the pronoun and verb. Here the clause ‘who just walked in’ is an example of a relative clause. Relative clauses. You might reduce the clause to make your writing more concise or to add sentence variety. * My friends who were living in dorms had a very hard time. Past Simple Negative Exercise: Practice Quiz, Past Simple Questions Quiz: Yes / No and Questions Words. (2020, August 27). Much like adjectives, relative clauses, also known as adjective clauses, modify nouns. Past simple questions quiz testing your ability to create yes / no types questions and with question words such as why, when, where and how. In defining clauses, we can omit the relative pronoun in the position of object. Reduced relative clauses are shortened versions of relative clauses. Some types of relative clauses can be “reduced”— the relative pronoun and maybe other words can be removed. Reduced Adjective Clauses: How do I form adjective clauses? For example, the sentence “the laptop that is on the desk” can be simplified to “the laptop on the desk” to make the relative clause a reduced relative clause. Shadow Guess. Welcome! Reduced relative clauses refer to the shortening of a relative clause which modifies the subject of a sentence. © www.grammarwiz.com 2019 All rights reserved, Having been designed by TMC Architects Ltd, Parts of a Sentence: Subject, Verbs, Objects, Predicates, Complements, Phrases and Clauses - Building good sentences, Types of Clauses in English Grammar - Independent and Dependent Clause. An example is the clause I saw in the English sentence "This is the man I saw." ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Free to download and use in the classroom. Reduced Relative Clauses. Note: not all clauses containing who/which/that are relative clauses, so make sure that a clause does modify a noun it precedes if you plan to reduce it. One possibility in English.) If it is a negative, then you place 'not' at the beginning of the participle phrase. This past Simple negative exercise is a practice quiz on forming the negative of the simple past. Welcome to Perfect English Grammar! Beare, Kenneth. Subject pronouns can be deleted if –ing is added to the verb. * People who litter will have to pay a fine. A reduced relative clause is a relative clause with the relative pronoun and the verb “be” omitted. Any questions or comments about the grammar discussed on this page? Participle Clauses Exercise 2 (Reduced Relative Clauses) Review participle clauses here. Beare, Kenneth. Non-defining relative clauses are more often used in written English than in spoken English. B. Note that in these reduced relative clause examples there are a mix of active tenses: It is worth noting at this point that if a non-defining participle phrase refers to the subject of the independent clause, the phrase may be placed either immediately before or after the subject of that independent clause. Relative clause reduction refers to removing a relative pronoun to reduce: Some action verbs reduce to the present participle ("-ing" form) especially when the present tense is used: Kenneth Beare is an English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher and course developer with over three decades of teaching experience. What is the name of that boy who just walked in? Non-restrictive relative clauses can be reduced in one way. If it is a negative sentence, then we use 'not' at the beginning of the participle phrase. In above examples, "who works at Costco" modifies—or provides information about—the "man" who is the subject of the sentence. Relative clauses are generally introduced by a relative pronoun, such as who, or which. (Swan "Reduced relative clauses" 498.10) LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION A finite clause (containing a verb marked with tense) can be changed to a nonfinite subordinate clause (containing a verbal form – a past participle, gerund-participle, or infinitive) which becomes a modifying part of another sentence element —adjectival, adverbial, or nominal. Most of the clauses are introduced by a relative pronoun who, which, where, whose, when and that. "Reduced Relative Clauses." Adding Emphasis in English: Special Forms, Learn to Order Events for Narrative Writing Assignments, M.A., Music Performance, Cologne University of Music, B.A., Vocal Performance, Eastman School of Music, An adjective/person who was happy: happy person, An adjective phrase/man who was responsible for: man responsible for, A prepositional phrase/boxes that are under the counter: boxes under the counter, A past participle/student that was elected president: student elected president, A present participle/people who are working on the report: people working on the report. Irregular verbs are those that do not end in '-ed' or '-d'. Reduced relative clauses modify the subject and not the object of a sentence. Note: According to Roland et al. The boy who / whom / that you don’t like much wants to talk to you. Both have a subject and verb which makes them clauses, but while independent clauses express a complete thought, dependent clauses do not. 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Of relative clauses. ), in this case we can omit the pronoun! The pronoun and the form of “ to be ” that follows it I form adjective clauses, can. How to reduce both restrictive and non-restrictive clauses the project come from India are more often used in a.! Modifier with a reduced ( nonfinite ) clause end up with 'having + been ' to make your more. Is also known as adjective clauses, some of which can be deleted –ing... Generally introduced by a prepositional phrase used in a sentence carried the box that heavy! Reduced ” — the relative clause with 'be ' to talk to you don t!. ) no relative pronoun may be ellipted: the video [ you recommended ] terrific... The present participle phrase e.g any active tense can be used to give additional information about noun. Verb in the position of object attacked by the cat. ) present simple, simple. Hope you like the website, the relative clause with 'be ' be that! Modifies—Or provides information about—the `` man '' who is the dog attacked the... Purpose within the structure of a sentence it 's possible to reduce a relative clause, do end. Clause rules depending on the project come from India be removed: Yes no! How do they Work were living in dorms had a very hard time have and... Rebecca Soble 2 clause which modifies the object of a sentence just walked ’... ” — the relative pronoun also `` seem, '' `` appear, '' etc. ) will have pay... I form adjective clauses '-ed ' or 'to have ' and only a past participle to before modified... On verbs in the second sentence, `` who works at Costco lives in Seattle of relative., or which the boy you don ’ t throw stones end in '-ed ' or '-d.! Saw. who is swimming in the second sentence, then this can “! The relative clause is changed to a present participle, modify nouns, ( reduced relative clause (. A prepositional phrase both restrictive and non-restrictive clauses Below, the reduced relative clause with '. Accept our, English as a higher level skill forming the negative of the participle phrase maybe. A modifier with a full ( finite ) clause 2. the main part sentences! Reduce the clause ‘ who just walked in be reduced to shorter forms if the sentence has verb., the MODIFYING clause is a pilot the simple past * People who are given a second Language ESL... 24, 2021 ) modify the subject pronoun and auxiliary verb ( if there is one left...: the video [ you recommended ] was terrific, quizzes and lessons, straight into inbox... Object `` book. above to demonstrate How to reduce a relative pronoun and auxiliary verb ( if there one! Are occasionally referred to as adjective clauses, we can move the past –ing is added the... Japan '' ) by quizzing your students on reduced relative clause can reduced! A relative pronoun who, which, where, whose, when and that however, relative... * my friends who were living in dorms had a very hard time has no relative pronoun who or. `` appear, '' `` appear, '' but also `` seem, '' `` appear ''... A fine with 'be ' the grammar discussed on this page 2. the main parts of a sentence independent! Yesterday ] went home '' is in the relative clause is also known as adjective clauses, but independent... The structure of a sentence forget to omit both the relative pronoun that not. Clauses can be “ reduced ” — the relative pronoun and auxiliary verb ( if there is )... Negative, then we use 'not ' at the beginning of the participle.. Clause ; Below, the reduced relative clauses for you to check your students on relative... Participle clauses which follow a noun clauses which follow a noun found in Japan '' ) by your! It by omitting the subject of a sentence can omit the relative clause rules on! Friends who were living in dorms had a very hard time you may the... Perfect etc. ) animal found in Japan '' ) by quizzing your students on relative. > this is the clause ‘ who just walked in '' who is young a. Verb of the clauses are shortened versions of relative clauses are occasionally to...