Under this system, the average produce of different crops as well as the average price prevailing over the last 10 years was calculated and accordingly land reveue was fixed. Likewise other Ministers became powerful. The farmers could deposit the land revenue direct to the treasury. The Rajput policy of Akbar was unique as it not only helped to end the long drawn conflict between the Rajputs and Mughal ruler but also helped Akbar in the consolidation of his empire. Akbar’s day started with his appearance at the Jharokha (balcony) of the palace. Normally state officers did not interfere in the village affairs. The second was making cash payment. Akbar was an enlightened and successful administrator. He was also the head of the intelligence agencies of the empire. Akbar gave the post of the prime minister to Bairam Khan. Akbar the Great, Muslim emperor of India, established a sprawling kingdom through military conquests but is known for his policy of religious tolerance. Although their doctrines and ceremonies, known as the Divine Faith (Dīn-e Ilāhī), assigned a central place to Akbar himself, it would be an oversimplification to ascribe political motives to those developments. Akbar’s reign was an example of the stimulating effects of cultural encounter. That excluded the lands under tributary rulers such as the Rajputs and also the lands assigned for the maintenance of Mughal officers. TOS4. After the reign of Aurangzeb, the Prime Minister, then called ‘Vakil’ became very powerful. Write a short note on Akbar’s administrative policies. 2. Important features of Akbar’s administration are given below: Akbar’s ideal of Kingship. He coordinated the work of all other ministers. Akbar’s reforms required a centralized financial system, and, thus, by the side of each provincial governor (sūbadār, later called nawab) was placed a civil administrator (dīwān, or divan) who supervised revenue collection, prepared accounts, and reported directly to the emperor. Therefore, as a part of his reform, he divided the empire into various subas controlled by the Subedars. Physically, he was strong and could withstand hardship on campaigns. Officers were paid either in cash from the emperor’s treasury or, more frequently, by the assignment of lands from which they had to collect the revenue, retaining the amount of their salary and remitting the balance to the treasury. Content Guidelines 2. Although that seems to have been little more than an expression of his systematic approach to problems, the orthodox were offended. Akbar's policy of religious tolerance ensured that employment in the imperial administration was open to all on merit irrespective of creed, and this led to an increase in the strength of the administrative … Therefore, he was able to win the goodwill of the Rajput who became staunch supporters of the Empire. A large number of people assembled below the balcony, presented their petitions to the emperor, besides having a fortunate glimpse of their emperor. Important features of Akbar’s administration are given below: Akbar’s ideal of Kingship. This topic was modified 7 months ago by Kashyap. There were three systems of land revenue: This system was prevalent in the areas from Lahore to Allahabad and in Malwa and Gujarat. Bakshi looked after the needs of the army. Buildings at Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh, India, c. 1571. The land was divided into four categories according to its produce: (i) Polaj land which was regularly cultivated and yielded crops regularly. With this edict, Akbar’s judgment was set above every legal and religious authority, so it was the promulgation of the doctrine of Imperial infallibility. Last Post 0. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. For Notes-9098676936Instagram- https://www.instagram.com/currentaffairsupdated/ Politically, the greatest merit of the system was that it enabled the emperor to offer attractive careers to the able, ambitious, and influential. The Kotwal was entrusted with the maintenance of law and order in the main cities. With the help of Raja Todar Mal, Akbar experimented on the land revenue administration, which was completed in 1580. This system was in vogue in Thatta and in parts of Kabul and Kandhar. He was assisted by a ‘Diwan’ who looked after the revenue records. Ministers in Mughal Administration During the reign of Akbar there were only four ministers, namely Wakil, Diwan or Wazir, Mir Bakhsi and Sadr-us-Sadur. COMPARISON BETWEEN AKBAR AND AURANGZEB ON MUGHAL RELATIONS WITH THE RAJPUT. Akbar also continued to maintain excellent diplomatic relationship with the Safavid rulers of Persia, which dated back to his father’s days with Shah Tahmasp I lending his military support to Humayun for recapturing Delhi. During his reign, he initiated several reforms in the administrative system of the empire. First, every officer was, at least in principle, appointed and promoted by the emperor instead of by his immediate superior. Usually he ruled according to Shariat (Islamic Law). He looked after the revenues of the state. Begun in 1570 and abandoned in 1586, Akbar’s capital of Fatehpur Sikri, near Delhi, is evidence of the resources he could command. He was the head of the judicial department. Every civil and military official was given a mansab and was called a Mansabdar. Now the farmers had direct link with the government and they were saved from the excesses and tyrannies of the landlords and the jagirdars. Extension and strengthening of Akbar’s empire: The cooperation of the Hindus who formed the majority of Akbar’s subjects helped him in the extension and strengthening of his empire. Todar Mal was a brilliant revenue officer of his time. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. He first served on Sher Shah’s court, but later … Significance of Akbar’s Hindu Policy: 1. While Aurangzeb made the monarch the successor of Islam . Todar Mai, the revenue minister of Akbar played an important role in devising and introducing a very effective and efficient land revenue and record system. The Zabti system proved very useful both to the state and the farmers. The wide and sweeping conquests of Mughal emperor Akbar are an eloquent testimony to his extraordinary military talents. There were two methods of making payments to the nobles. This covered most of the empire. The Subadar carried out … The Subadar carried out … It goes to the credit of Akbar that the subsequent Mughal rulers followed in principle the administrative policy developed by him. Privacy Policy3. Akbar's administrative policies were mentioned in Abul Fazl's book the Akbar Nama, particularly in its third and last volume, the Ain-i Akbari In the book Abul Fazl explained that the empire was divided into provinces known as Subas, governed by a Subadar. Akbar was the centre of all powers—civil, judicial, military and religious. A record of all the holdings and liabilities of every farmer was maintained. One was giving them Jagirs (land) wherefrom they got their salaries. He was like the Prime Minister and advised the king in all matters. Akbar gave the Mughal India one official language (Persian), a uniform administrative system and coinage and a common system of weights and measures. For the assessment and collection of revenue, a large number of officers like the Amil, Bitikchi, Qanungo, Muqaddam and Patwari were appointed. Therefore, the administrative machinery began to slip out from the control of the emperor which contributed to the downfall of the Mughal Empire. Akbar also supported state workshops for the production of high-quality textiles and ornaments. Effective government in a country as geographically vast and as socially complex as India demands a wide measure of social support. He also received with enthusiasm the European pictures brought by the Jesuits, and his painters incorporated European techniques of realism and perspective into the distinctive Mughal painting style (characterized by a vivid treatment of the physical world) that began to develop during his reign. The Mughal-style Jāmiʿ Masjid (Great Mosque) built under Akbar's reign in Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh, India. Such lands seem to have been transferred frequently from one officer to another; that increased the officers’ dependence on the emperor, but it may also have encouraged them to squeeze as much as they could from the peasants with whom their connection might be transitory. This is a product of Mexus Education Pvt. As a further safeguard against abuses, Akbar reorganized the existing network of newswriters, whose duty it was to send regular reports of important events to the emperor. Akbar maintained a luxurious and brilliant court at which elaborate ceremonies emphasized his distance from other men, though he was careful to cultivate public opinion outside court circles. (ii) Parauti land was left uncultivated after every crop to regain its productivity, (iii) Chachhar land was left uncultivated for 3 to 4 years. Those ranks were systematically graded from commanders of 10 persons to commanders of 5,000 persons, higher ranks being allotted to Mughal princes. It was Akbar (who promoted the syncretic religion called Dīn-i Ilāhī) during whose reign the religious policy of the Mughals were formulated. In 1581 the discussions at the Ibadat Khana were discontinued. In bad seasons, remissions of revenues were granted to the farmers. All appointments, promotions or dismissals depended on his decision and orders. Akbar’s reforms required a centralized financial system, and, thus, by the side of each provincial governor (sūbadār, later called nawab) was placed a civil administrator (dīwān, or divan) who supervised revenue collection, prepared accounts, and reported directly to the emperor. Akbar's reign was chronicled by his court historian Abul Fazal in the books Akbarnama and Ain-i-Akbari. 2) Each province also had a diwan. Akbar’s administrative system can be grouped under two heads: Central Administration Provincial Administration But it would be a mistake to look upon Akbar as […] He persuaded the Muslim theologians at his court to accept him as arbiter on points of Islamic law in dispute among them. It has also often been portrayed as a model for future governments—strong, benevolent, tolerant, and enlightened. Special consultation with the ministers and nobles were held at the hall of Special Audience (Diwan-i-khas). His unprejudiced inquiries into Christian doctrines misled the Jesuit missionaries he invited to his court into thinking that he was on the point of conversion. The revenue officials were instructed not to be harsh with the farmers. Farmers were issued receipts for all the payments made by them. The system on the one hand determined the income of the government and on the other hand enabled the farmers to know clearly how much revenue they had to pay to the government. Cultural unity: Cultural unity between the Hindus and the Muslims was strengthened. Rai Durga Sisodia of Rampura and Raja Todar Mal were assigned administrative tasks in the revenue department. [Solved] Write a short note on Akbar’s administrative policies. Land of each farmer was measured into ‘bighas’. According to him, “Upon the conduct of a monarch depends the efficiency of any course of action. Although he seems to have been no more than 5 feet 7 inches (170 cm) tall, he impressed observers as a dominating personality. Central Administration: Akbar was the overall in-charge of the central government. A mansabdar got his salary from the royal treasury. In short, the new religion was based on common truths of all religions and rules were formulated on the rules of various religions. ADMINISTRATION One of the significant contributions of Akbar’s reign was the establishment of an efficient administrative system. Akbar followed the same feudal policy toward the other Rajput chiefs. The provincial ministers and officers followed the nomenclature of the central administration and performed similar duties. He looked after the imperial house-hold. Every morning at dawn he stood at an open window to be seen and reverenced by the people. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The Subadar carried out … Three categories of Polaj and Parauti land. According to the Batai or Ghalla- Bakshi system, the producer of the farmers was divided between the government and the fanners in the ratio settled between them. Rajput Policy of Akbar. Farmers were given the option to pay the revenue in cash or kind. Qazi looked after justice. Thus Mansabdari was a system in which the rank of a government official was determined. He also looked after the control of the royal body guards and etiquettes in the court. Foreign observers commented on the graceful manner in which he accepted little gifts from the people and showed himself ready to hear the complaint of any man who dared to approach him. In describing the rules Akbar emphasized on peace and tolerance. The posts of Wakil and Wazir were combined together afterwards and the holder of the post was called Vakil-i-Mutlaq. These types of lands were divided into three grades, viz., good, average and bad. Previous Indian governments had been weakened by two disintegrating tendencies characteristic of premodern states—one of armies being split up into the private forces of individual commanders and the other of provincial governors becoming hereditary local rulers. Akbar’s administrative policies were mentioned in Abul Fazl’s book the Akbar Nama, particularly in its third and last volume, the Ain-i Akbari In the book Abul Fazl explained that the empire was divided into provinces known as Subas, governed by a Subadar. In 1583-84, Akbar initiated a new policy of selecting loyal Muslim and Hindu nobles for performing administrative tasks. Its combination of Hindu and Muslim architectural styles symbolizes the contact of cultures that he encouraged. Todar Mal was a brilliant revenue officer of his time. (iv) Banjar land was left uncultivated for more than 4 years. Administrative Units. Similarly, he commissioned the translation of Sanskrit classics into Persian and gave illustrated copies to his courtiers. Babur and Humayun had little time to take any initiative in formulating any administrative policy worth the name. But such efficiency could only have been enforced in the areas directly administered by the central government. They were allowed to hold their ancestral territories, provided that they acknowledged Akbar as emperor, paid tribute, supplied troops when required, and concluded a marriage alliance with him. Panchayats looked after the village administration and also dispensed justice. 04/05/2020 12:13 pm. The share of the state was one-third of the produce of the land. In this video you will learn about the administrative policies followed by Akbar and the officials in his kingdom. Akbar’s infallible administrative system proves his very wise acumen for bringing about greater changes in the political chaos of a country which was an amalgamation of a … Other important high officials who assisted the king were Mir Atish who supervised the artillery, Daroga-i-Taksal, supervisor of royal mint and Daroga-i-Daak, supervisor of the mail. Other sources of Akbar's reign include the wod Sirhindi. Akbar considered the monarchy above religion and sect and adopted a policy of reconciliation in place of the Orthodox Islamic doctrine. Akbar’s Administration Policies. The petitions were promptly attended to on the spot or later in the open hall of public audience (Diwan-i-am). Yet, notwithstanding Akbar’s reforms, travelers’ accounts indicate that the Indian peasants remained impoverished. Each province was under the charge of Subedar (Governor). These were: Agra, Ahmedabad, Ahmednagar, Ajmer, Allahabad, Awadh, Bengal, Berar, Bihar, Delhi, Kabul, Khandar, Lahore, Malwa and Multan. Akbar’s Religious Policy. 1) Akbar divided the empire into provinces called subas, governed by a subadar who carried out both political and military functions. His gratitude to God should be shown in just government and due recognition of merit.”, image source: aura.edu.in/read/icse/icse-7/history_and_civics/original/Page-066.jpg. He also introduced a new system of revenue collection better known as the Mansabdari system. In the Mansabdari system no Jagirs were granted for the purpose of paying salaries. Immediate superior in a country as geographically vast and as socially complex as India demands a wide measure of support! 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